Appendix 2 & 3  

II: Selected Definitions  
III: Primary Data Sources  

II: Selected Definitions

Attainment rates

These rates measure the highest level of education in which individuals were enrolled. The data reflect the attainment rates for the population that is over age 25. Attainment rates do not imply that all students completed this level of education.

Citation statistics over 5-year time periods

The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database is used to track publication and citation statistics, and typically attributes citations to the year the paper was published. Recent years therefore show dramatically lower citation numbers than earlier years, as there has been less time for newer papers to be cited.

To track trends in citations over time, ISI developed a 5-year-window approach. Each 5-year block measures citations made in a time period for only those papers published in that period. More recent 5-year windows are therefore comparable to older time periods, and growth or decline in citation numbers over time can be noted.

GDP per capita

Real GDP per capita is expressed in constant dollars using the Chain index (1985 international prices). For years up to the early 1990s, data are supplied directly from the Penn World Tables 5.6. In cases where the Penn World Tables do not have data for a more recent year, the World Bank’s figures for GDP per capita are consulted. Because the World Bank figures are expressed in 1987 international dollars, the rate of change of GDP per capita from year to year is extracted from the World Bank data and applied to the Penn World Table base. The resulting figure is expressed in 1985 dollars. Data courtesy of John Gallup, Center for International Development, Harvard University.

Gross enrollment ratio

The gross enrollment ratio is the total enrollment at a given educational level, regardless of age, divided by the population of the age group that typically corresponds to that level of education. The specification of age groups varies by country, based on different national systems of education and the duration of schooling at the first and second levels. For tertiary education, the ratio is expressed as a percentage of the population in the 5-year age group following the official secondary school-leaving age. Gross enrollment ratios may exceed 100 per cent if individuals outside the age cohort corresponding to a particular educational level are enrolled in that level.

Human Development Index (HDI)

This index measures the average achievements in a country in three basic dimensions of human development – longevity, knowledge, and a decent standard of living. A composite index, the HDI, thus contains three variables: life expectancy, educational attainment (adult literacy and combined primary, secondary, and tertiary enrollment), and real GDP per capita (in dollars adjusted for purchasing-power parity). The HDI is calculated by the United Nations Development Programme.

Life expectancy at birth

The number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of birth was to stay the same throughout the child’s life.

Public current spending on higher education as percentage of total public current spending on education

This measures the percentage of public spending on education that is devoted to tertiary education. Only current spending (i.e. recurring, non-capital expenses) is considered.

Public expenditure on education as percentage of GNP

This measures the total public expenditure on education (both current and capital expenses) expressed as a percentage of the gross national product (GNP) for a given year. This indicator shows the proportion of a country's wealth generated during a given year that has been devoted by government authorities to the development of education.

Public expenditure on education as percentage of government expenditure

This measures the total public expenditure on education (both current and capital expenses) expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure in a given year. This indicator shows the proportion of a government's total expenditure for a given year that has been spent on education.

Tertiary education

Education at the third level (International Standard Classification of Education, ISCED, levels 5, 6, and 7), such as universities, teachers' colleges, and higher professional schools – requiring as a minimum condition of admission the successful completion of education at the second level or evidence of the attainment of an equivalent level of knowledge.

III: Primary Data Sources

Barro, Robert. and Lee, Jong-Wha. 1993.

International Comparisons of Educational Attainment. NBER Working Paper 4349.

Barro, Robert and Lee, Jong-Wha. 1994.

Data Set for a Panel of 138 Countries. mimeo., Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, January 1994

Barro, Robert and Lee, Jong-Wha. 1996.

International Measures of Schooling Years and Schooling Quality. American Economic Review 86(2) p218-223.

Bloom, David and Rivera-Batiz, Francisco. 1999.

Global Trends in the Financing of Higher Education: Prospects and Challenges for the Next Decade, Statistical Appendix. Unpublished

Drèze, J. and Sen. A.K. 1989.

Hunger and Public Action. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press.

Drèze, J. and Sen, A.K. 1995.

India: Economic development and social opportunity. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gallup, John. 1999.

Data set expressing GDP per capita in constant dollars using 1985 international prices. Primary data sources are Penn World Tables 5.6, University of Pennysylvania and World Development Indicators 1998, World Bank. Center for International Development, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.

ISI (Institute for Scientific Information). 1998.

National Science Indicators on Diskette, 1981–1997, Version 1.5. Philadelphia, PA: ISI.

Puryear, Jeffrey M., 1992.

International Education Statistics and Research: Status and Problems, International

Journal of Educational Development, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 79-91, 1995.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1992.

Human Development Report 1992. New York: Oxford University Press.

UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1998.

Human Development Report 1998. New York: Oxford University Press.

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). 1993.

World Education Report 1993. Paris: UNESCO.

UNESCO. 1998a.

World Statistical Outlook on Higher Education: 1980–1995. Working document of the World Conference on Higher Education, Paris, October 1998. Paris: UNESCO.

UNESCO. 1998b.

UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1998. Paris: UNESCO.

UNESCO. 1999a. Division of Statistics Data

Available at March, April, May.

UNESCO. 1999b.

Correspondence about public expenditures on education.

Division of Statistics, Paris. Received April.

United Nations Population Division. 1996.

World Population Prospects 1950–2050. New York: United Nations

World Bank 1998.

World Development Indicators 1998. CD-ROM. Washington, D.C.: World Bank.

World Bank 1999.

World Development Report: Knowledge for Development 1998/1999. New York: Oxford University Press.