These rates measure the highest level of education in which individuals
were enrolled. The data reflect the attainment rates for the population
that is over age 25. Attainment rates do not imply that all students
completed this level of education.
Citation statistics over 5-year time periods
The Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database is used
to track publication and citation statistics, and typically attributes
citations to the year the paper was published. Recent years therefore
show dramatically lower citation numbers than earlier years, as
there has been less time for newer papers to be cited.
To track trends in citations over time, ISI developed a 5-year-window
approach. Each 5-year block measures citations made in a time
period for only those papers published in that period. More recent
5-year windows are therefore comparable to older time periods,
and growth or decline in citation numbers over time can be noted.
GDP per capita
Real GDP per capita is expressed in constant dollars using the
Chain index (1985 international prices). For years up to the early
1990s, data are supplied directly from the Penn World Tables 5.6.
In cases where the Penn World Tables do not have data for a more
recent year, the World Banks figures for GDP per capita
are consulted. Because the World Bank figures are expressed in
1987 international dollars, the rate of change of GDP per capita
from year to year is extracted from the World Bank data and applied
to the Penn World Table base. The resulting figure is expressed
in 1985 dollars. Data courtesy of John Gallup, Center for International
Development, Harvard University.
Gross enrollment ratio
The gross enrollment ratio is the total enrollment at a given
educational level, regardless of age, divided by the population
of the age group that typically corresponds to that level of education.
The specification of age groups varies by country, based on different
national systems of education and the duration of schooling at
the first and second levels. For tertiary education, the ratio
is expressed as a percentage of the population in the 5-year age
group following the official secondary school-leaving age. Gross
enrollment ratios may exceed 100 per cent if individuals outside
the age cohort corresponding to a particular educational level
are enrolled in that level.
Human Development Index (HDI)
This index measures the average achievements in a country in
three basic dimensions of human development longevity,
knowledge, and a decent standard of living. A composite index,
the HDI, thus contains three variables: life expectancy, educational
attainment (adult literacy and combined primary, secondary, and
tertiary enrollment), and real GDP per capita (in dollars adjusted
for purchasing-power parity). The HDI is calculated by the United
Nations Development Programme.
Life expectancy at birth
The number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing
patterns of mortality at the time of birth was to stay the same
throughout the childs life.
Public current spending on higher education as percentage
of total public current spending on education
This measures the percentage of public spending on education
that is devoted to tertiary education. Only current spending (i.e.
recurring, non-capital expenses) is considered.
Public expenditure on education as percentage of GNP
This measures the total public expenditure on education (both
current and capital expenses) expressed as a percentage of the
gross national product (GNP) for a given year. This indicator
shows the proportion of a country's wealth generated during a
given year that has been devoted by government authorities to
the development of education.
Public expenditure on education as percentage of government
This measures the total public expenditure on education (both
current and capital expenses) expressed as a percentage of total
government expenditure in a given year. This indicator shows the
proportion of a government's total expenditure for a given year
that has been spent on education.
Education at the third level (International Standard Classification
of Education, ISCED, levels 5, 6, and 7), such as universities,
teachers' colleges, and higher professional schools requiring
as a minimum condition of admission the successful completion
of education at the second level or evidence of the attainment
of an equivalent level of knowledge.
Barro, Robert. and Lee, Jong-Wha. 1993.
International Comparisons of Educational Attainment. NBER Working
Barro, Robert and Lee, Jong-Wha. 1994.
Data Set for a Panel of 138 Countries. mimeo., Harvard University,
Cambridge, Massachusetts, January 1994
Barro, Robert and Lee, Jong-Wha. 1996.
International Measures of Schooling Years and Schooling Quality.
American Economic Review 86(2) p218-223.
Bloom, David and Rivera-Batiz, Francisco. 1999.
Global Trends in the Financing of Higher Education: Prospects
and Challenges for the Next Decade, Statistical Appendix. Unpublished
Drèze, J. and Sen. A.K. 1989.
Hunger and Public Action. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon Press.
Drèze, J. and Sen, A.K. 1995.
India: Economic development and social opportunity. New York:
Oxford University Press.
Gallup, John. 1999.
Data set expressing GDP per capita in constant dollars using
1985 international prices. Primary data sources are Penn World
Tables 5.6, University of Pennysylvania and World Development
Indicators 1998, World Bank. Center for International Development,
Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
ISI (Institute for Scientific Information). 1998.
National Science Indicators on Diskette, 19811997, Version
1.5. Philadelphia, PA: ISI.
Puryear, Jeffrey M., 1992.
International Education Statistics and Research: Status and Problems,
Journal of Educational Development, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 79-91,
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1992.
Human Development Report 1992. New York: Oxford University Press.
UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). 1998.
Human Development Report 1998. New York: Oxford University Press.
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization).
World Education Report 1993. Paris: UNESCO.
World Statistical Outlook on Higher Education: 19801995.
Working document of the World Conference on Higher Education,
Paris, October 1998. Paris: UNESCO.
UNESCO Statistical Yearbook 1998. Paris: UNESCO.
UNESCO. 1999a. Division of Statistics Data
Available at http://unescostat.unesco.org/Index.asp. March, April,
Correspondence about public expenditures on education.
Division of Statistics, Paris. Received April.
United Nations Population Division. 1996.
World Population Prospects 19502050. New York: United Nations
World Bank 1998.
World Development Indicators 1998. CD-ROM. Washington, D.C.:
World Bank 1999.
World Development Report: Knowledge for Development 1998/1999.
New York: Oxford University Press.